ACE stands for Adverse Childhood Experience. The original ACEs study was a joint Kaiser Permanente-CDC study conducted in in California from 1995-1997. It is one of the largest investigations of the link between childhood trauma and later-life health. Over 17,000 HMO members participated. The "ACE score" is the total of the different categories of ACEs reported by participants and is used to assess cumulative childhood stress. The study revealed clear dose-response relationships between ACE scores and negative health and well-being outcomes in ones later life. In summary, the higher ones ACEs score, the greater the risk of negative consequences in subsequent years -- these negative consequences include early pregnancy, alcoholism and depression (among many others). ACEs continue to be studied worldwide.
Read About ACEs:
Georgetown Law, Gender & Trauma(2017), available at
The documentary, Paper Tigers, was filmed with local students in Walla Walla, WA is called, ‘Paper Tigers.’ James Redford, documented the lives of staff and students of Lincoln Alternative High School in Walla Walla, Washington as the director of “Paper Tigers”.
Students at this high school had behavioral issues and poor academic performances and were usually suspended from school. After discovering the studies on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), the high school changed its approach to handling the students with kindness and in-school suspension versus automatic punitive punishments.
Check it out: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt4076258/
Paternalism in the Juvenile Justice System
This 2016 article from Mother Jonesis on the topic of judges in the juvenile justice system and their paternalistic attitudes towards female offenders:
An article written by Robin DiAngelo, explores white fragility.
Read it here.